FG: ULF Wave Modeling, Effects, and Applications

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Focus Group Leaders:

  • Michael Hartinger, Space Science Institute and Virginia Tech (mdhartin@vt.edu)
  • Kazue Takahashi, Applied Physics Laboratory
  • Alexander Drozdov, UCLA
  • Maria Usanova, University of Colorado
  • Brian Kress, University of Colorado and NOAA-NCEI
  • Xueling Shi, Virginia Tech

Focus Group term: 2016-2020

Science Questions

Our group aims to address the following broad science questions: What mechanisms excite ULF waves? How do ULF waves couple to the plasmasphere/ring current/radiation belt populations? What is the role of ULF waves in Magnetosphere-Ionosphere coupling?

Focus Group Proposal

ULF Wave Modeling, Effects, and Applications (UMEA) (December 2015)

ULF wave modeling challenge

One part of the ULF wave modeling challenge involves running several global MHD simulation codes with identical, idealized solar wind driving conditions (sinusoidal density variation), then comparing the resulting global ULF wave properties and discussing differences in the context of differing boundary conditions, grids, etc. More details can be found here: ULF wave modeling challenge at CCMC

Another part of the ULF wave modeling challenge involves data-model comparisons during specific events. At the 2017 GEM and mini-GEM meetings several challenge events were proposed, including two 2017 events.

We have selected the 27-28 May 2017 storm event for the ULF wave modeling challenge due to favorable solar wind coverage and availability of numerous satellites (MMS, ARASE, THEMIS, RBSP, Cluster, GOES, ...) and ground-based observations for global context and multi-point wave observations. We will be continuously updating this overview presentation with observation and modeling results. Model output and observations for the challenge event - including global densities from the NURD model - can be obtained here. If you would like to add additional observations/model output to the google drive or overview pdf, please contact the co-chairs.

CCMC has run several global MHD simulation codes using the driving conditions of the ULF wave challenge event. At the 2019 GEM meeting and future GEM/mini-GEM meetings, we plan data-model comparisons to identify where model/data don't agree and discuss these differences in the context of incorrect boundary conditions (e.g., compare model ionosphere to local PFISR-derived conductivities), missing physics, numerical dissipation, etc. Please contact CCMC/Lutz Rastaetter and model developers before using this simulation output in publications:

  • Space Weather Modeling Framework simulation, IMF Bx=0 (other parameters as in event). Full 2-day event, 3D output every 15s, virtual ground magnetometer. If you haven't used CCMC visualization tools before, be aware that you shouldn’t submit multiple visualization requests at the same time, as this could crash CCMC server for these large 3D files. Instead, request a batch process or wait for the first visualization request to complete. The easiest/fastest visualization is to follow the link above and scroll down until you see the virtual ground magnetometer and satellites list. Click on the magnetometer/satellite of interest, then select which parameter(s) to display/download.

ULF wave HGSO event coordination

Our group is helping coordinate analysis of conjunction events for ULF wave studies, including requesting instrument operation modes favorable for ULF wave analysis.

The 2 May 2017 0400-0800 UT conjunction event includes several satellites (THEMIS, Cluster, Van Allen Probes, GOES, Geotail, FIREBIRD, METOP, POES, DMSP) in the pre-midnight sector during a conjunction with the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar and several SuperDARN radars. PFISR was operating throughout the conjunction, several SuperDARN radars were in high resolution sampling modes, and several satellites were operating in fast survey/burst mode. The conjunction is favorable for modeling and observation studies of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling via ULF waves, wave-particle interactions, global ULF wave properties, and many other topics. This pdf summarizes preliminary results

Several web-based tools are available for identifying future conjunctions, including upcoming conjunctions between ARASE and Van Allen Probes/ground and conjunctions between SWARM/all-sky cameras.

There are also many specialized, web-based tools for ULF wave analysis (please contact FG co-chairs to add to this list):

Summary Reports for GEM workshops

2016 UMEA FG report

2017 UMEA FG report

2018 UMEA FG report

2019 UMEA FG report

2016 Mini-GEM schedule

UMEA will hold one session at the mini-GEM workshop: ULF wave modeling, effects and applications updates

Time: 12:00-13:30, Sunday, December 11, 2016

Location: Oregon Room, Holiday Inn Golden Gateway


First Half (12:00 – 12:45): 3 talks (~15 min each):

  • 2. Lutz Rastaetter -- ULF wave modeling challenge at CCMC
  • 3. Robert Rankin -- Modeling the global properties and ground-based signatures of ULF waves and wave-particle interactions

Second Half (12:45 – 13:30): (5 minutes each, 1-2 slides, order of talks may change):

  • 1. Xueling Shi -- SuperDARN THEMIS Mode Data Tracker & ULF Wave Detection
  • 2. Richard Denton -- Mass density inferred from Alfven wave frequencies measured by RBSP
  • 3. Lars Daldorff -- ULF waves, particle transport and energization in global MHD simulations with plasmasphere
  • 4. Alexander Drozdov -- Dependence of radiation belt simulations to assumed radial diffusion rates tested for two empirical models of radial transport
  • 5. Bob Lysak -- Quarter Wavelength Modes
  • 6. Walk-ins

2017 GEM meeting schedule

UMEA will hold four sessions session at the 2017 GEM meeting

UMEA Update and plans, general discussion of ULF wave modeling and observations: 10:30-12:15, Monday, June 19, Port VI-VIII

  • 2. Toshi Nishimura -- PFISR measurements during the 2 May 2017 HGSO event
  • 4. Tetsuo Motoba -- Dayside Auroral Pulsations
  • 5. Brian Kress and Rob Redmon -- Newly Available GOES 8-16 Particle and Magnetic Field Measurements
  • 6. Dick Wolf -- Theory of magnetospheric buoyancy waves

ULF wave interactions with the radiation belt and ring current populations: 1:30-3:00, Monday, June 19, Port VI-VIII

  • 1. Rualdo Soto-Chavez -- Generation of Pc5-ULF wave by the drift-mirror instability
  • 4. Alexander Drozdov -- Radial diffusion and EMIC waves in the long-term simulation and in the case study
  • 5. Seth Claudepierre -- Global MHD simulations driven by idealized Alfvenic fluctuations in the solar wind
  • 6. Michael Hartinger -- Radiation belt response to large scale, monochromatic ULF waves: LANL-GEO observations

ULF wave modeling, including CCMC modeling challenge, Joint with MMV: 3:30-5:00, Monday, June 19, Port VI-VIII

  • 1. Lutz Rastaetter -- CCMC ULF wave modeling challenge update and challenge events
  • 3. Katariina Nykyri -- KHI challenge events
  • 4. All -- Open Discussion of Challenge Events
  • 5. Doga Ozturk -- Effects of Increased Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure on the Coupled M-I system under different IMF By
  • 6. Kazue Takahashi -- Cavity mode Van Allen Probe observations
  • 7. Bob Lysak -- Cavity mode models

Magnetosphere-Ionosphere coupling processes associated with localized disturbances caused by dayside kinetic phenomena: Joint with “Dayside Kinetic Processes…” and “Testing proposed links…”: 3:30-5:00, Tuesday, June 20, Port VI-VIII

  • 1. Peter Chi -- Magnetospheric and ionospheric responses to a localized disturbance: The macroscopic view
  • 2. Hui Zhang -- Magnetospheric ULF waves generated by foreshock transients
  • 3. Hui Zhang -- Modeling challenges in simulating HFA geoeffects
  • 4. Boyi Wang -- Optical signatures of dayside ULF waves during magnetosheath high-speed jets
  • 5. Katariina Nykyri -- The effect of magnetosheath seed spectrum on KH evolution and associated mass transport
  • 6. Kyle Murphy -- A statistical study of discrete ULF wave power observed by GOES

2017 Mini-GEM schedule

UMEA will hold two sessions at the 2017 mini-GEM workshop

Time: 12:00-13:30, Sunday, December 10, 2017, Canal/50

ULF wave modeling challenges Discussion of final plans for the CCMC ULF wave modeling challenge with idealized drivers, as well as open discussion of new challenges involving data-model and model-model comparisons during specific events. Please come with 1-2 slides showing examples of such comparisons, ideas for improving ULF wave models, and/or ideas for specific modeling challenges/sessions relevant to the FG science questions.

  • 1. 12:00-12:30 Overview of CCMC ULF wave modeling challenge with idealized driving conditions, description of challenge events and targets proposed during 2017 GEM meeting and November modeling telecon (Michael Hartinger, Lutz Rastaetter)
  • 2. 12:30-13:30 Open discussion of challenge events and targets (Allison Jaynes, Robert Rankin), select challenge event to be analyzed at 2018 GEM

Time: 13:50-15:20, Sunday, December 10, 2017, Canal/50

Heliophysics/Geospace system observatory coordination for ULF wave studies Discussion of HGSO coordination for ULF wave studies. This includes updates on the 2 May 2017 conjunction event followed by an open discussion of conjunctions and datasets that are particularly useful for ULF wave studies, including upcoming RBSP-ERG-ground conjunctions. Please come with 1-2 slides showing examples of datasets and past/upcoming conjunctions ideal for addressing the FG science questions: What excites ULF waves? How do ULF waves couple to the plasmasphere/ring current/radiation belt populations? What is the role of ULF waves in MI coupling? We welcome discussion from both modelers and observers of the types of conjunctions and observations that are most needed to address these questions.

  • 1. 13:50-14:20 Recently available datasets and conjunctions for ULF wave studies (Chih-Ping Wang, Xueling Shi, Sana Qamar, Rob Redmon)
  • 2. 14:20-14:35 Updates on 2 May 2017 conjunction event (Toshi Nishimura, Michael Hartinger)
  • 3. 14:35-15:20 Upcoming ARASE-RBSP conjunctions (Yoshi Miyoshi), Open Discussion of HGSO coordination for ULF wave studies (Toshi Nishimura, Kazue Takahashi)

2018 GEM meeting schedule

UMEA will hold four sessions at the 2018 GEM meeting.

ULF waves during particle injections and dipolarizations, joint with Dipolarization and Substorm FG: 10:30-12:00, Monday, June 18

  • 1. Discussion of Session Topic
  • 4. Toshi Nishimura -- Ionosphere observations of Pc5 ULF waves during 2018 HGSO conjunctions
  • 5. Xueling Shi -- Long-lasting poloidal ULF waves observed by multiple satellite and SuperDARN HF radars
  • 6. Jian Yang -- New RCM-I simulation results for buoyancy waves
  • 8. Yan Song -- What Causes the Substorm Expansion Phase and Associated ULF Waves?

Recent advances in ULF wave research: 1:30-3:00, Monday, June 18

  • 2. Brief ULF wave poster overviews (Tuesday posters)
  • 3. Kazue Takahashi -- Observation of nightside ULF waves by RBSP and Arase
  • 4. Tom Elsden -- Broadband Excitation of 3D Alfven Resonances (FLRs) in an MHD Waveguide
  • 5. Boyi Wang -- 2-D structure of foreshock driven Pc5 ULF waves observed by the THEMIS satellites and South Pole imager
  • 6. Xiaochen Shen -- Foreshock transient-driven ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves with dawn-dusk asymmetry of wave power
  • 7. Chih-Ping Wang -- ULF waves possibly driven by tailward propagation of foreshock perturbations
  • 9. Rualdo Soto -- The Drift-Mirror instability in Earth's inner magnetosphere

EMIC wave generation, propagation, and interactions: 3:30-5:00, Monday, June 18 (discussion leaders: Alexander Drozdov and Maria Usanova) Session Summary

  • 1. Dedong Wang -- EMIC wave observations from Van Allen Probes and MMS
  • 3. Maria Usanova -- MMS Observations of Harmonic Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves
  • 4. Naritoshi Kitamura -- Direct measurements of energy transfer from hot H+ to EMIC waves by MMS
  • 5. Bruce Fritz -- ELF Whistler Dependence on a Sunlit Ionosphere
  • 6. Chae-Woo Jun -- EMIC waves associated with/without the injection inside/outside the plasmapause
  • 7. Hyomin Kim -- Injection-associated EMIC waves
  • 8. Sebastian Cervantes -- EMIC wave parameterization in radiation belt reanalysis
  • 9. Maria Usanova -- Long-term correlation of EMIC wave activity and radiation belt flux variations
  • 10. Alexander Drozdov -- The effects due to the EMIC waves in the VERB code modeling

ULF wave modeling challenge, joint with MMV FG: 3:30-5:00, Wednesday, June 20

  • 1. Brief ULF wave poster overviews (Thursday posters)
  • 3. Mariko Teramoto: ARASE ULF wave observations during challenge event
  • 7. Xiaochen Shen: GEM Challenge Event: ULF wave-related electron and proton precipitation/negative dynamic pressure pulse driven EMIC wave
  • 9. Others discuss when their figures/summary plots in event overview pdf are presented…

2018 Mini-GEM schedule

UMEA will hold two sessions at the 2018 mini-GEM workshop

Time: 13:50-15:20, Sunday, December 9, 2018, Salon C

ULF modulation of the aurora, Heliophysics/Geospace system observatory coordination for ULF wave studies This session focuses on understanding a variety of mechanisms responsible for ULF modulations of the aurora. Eric Donovan will give a 30 minute invited presentation, with the rest of the session open for presentations and discussion on this topic. We welcome discussion of ULF aurora generation mechanisms and the types of conjunctions, observations, and models needed to understand the zoo of ULF auroral modulations. We also welcome discussion of upcoming observation campaigns/satellite conjunctions that would be particularly useful for ULF wave studies.

  • 1. Eric Donovan
  • 2. Tetsuo Motoba
  • 3. Slava Pilipenko
  • 4. Boyi Wang / Toshi Nishimura
  • 5. Open discussion

Time: 15:30-17:00, Sunday, December 9, 2018, Salon C

ULF wave modeling challenge and research highlights The first part of the session is for updates on the idealized ULF wave modeling challenge and potential 2019 GEM sessions. The next part of the session is for observation/model presentations relevant to the 27-28 May 2017 ULF wave challenge event and final selection of the modeling challenge targets – all types of models and observations welcome. The last part of the session will be open for 1 slide ULF wave modeling and observation research highlights.

2019 GEM meeting schedule

UMEA will hold six sessions at the 2019 GEM meeting, four joint with other focus groups.

Recent advances in ULF wave research: Modeling: 3:30-5:00, Monday, June 24 New Mexico room, joint with MMV. Discussion of advances in ULF wave research, with focus on modeling and modeling challenges (e.g., boundary conditions, grid resolution, missing physics). This includes models of the effects of ULF waves on inner magnetosphere dynamics and wave-particle interactions. We particularly encourage presentations focused on the ULF wave modeling challenge, including data-model comparisons for the 27-28 May 2017 challenge event.

  • Mike Hartinger, FG updates
  • Jesper Gjerloev, SuperMAG ULF updates
  • Tetsuo Motoba, High-time resolution SuperMAG ULF data products
  • Lutz Rastaetter, ULF wave modeling challenge
  • Maulik Patel, MHD test particle simulations of the 16 July 2017 shock compression of the dayside magnetopause
  • Bob McPherron, Pi 2 pulsations during the storm of May 27-29 2017, The Statistics of Pi 2 Pulsation Occurrence during a Major Magnetic Storm
  • Dong Lin, LFM simulations of surface waves during challenge event

The ULF response to dayside transients with different temporal/spatial scales: 10:30-12:00, Wednesday, June 26 Santa Fe room, discussion leader: Tom Elsden, joint with Dayside Kinetics and IHMIC. Dayside transient phenomena associated with kinetic scale processes cause a variety of ULF wave behaviour in the magnetosphere and further, contribute to significant magnetospheric asymmetries. The aim of this session is to bring together the expertise of the three focus groups listed above, to answer outstanding questions at the overlap of these disciplines. It is hoped that such a discussion should prove fruitful enough to generate a JGR commentary paper in this area. With this in mind, speakers in this session are encouraged to give their views as to the current state of the subject area, and how outstanding problems may be addressed in the future.

  • Tom Elsden - Session introduction and goals
  • Ferdinand Plaschke (invited) - An overview of dayside transients causing ULF waves
  • Tom Elsden - 3D ULF wave modeling with MHD
  • Boyi Wang - The role of magnetosheath high-speed jets in triggering magnetospheric Pc5 ULF waves
  • Bob Lysak - Ionospheric asymmetries and quarter-wave modes
  • Xueling Shi - Conjugate Observations of ULF Waves during an Extended Period of Radial IMF
  • Michael Hartinger - Localized magnetopause surface wave activity and modeling challenges
  • Discussion

ULF wave modeling challenges associated with Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere Coupling: 3:30-5:00, Wednesday, June 26 Lumpkins Ballroon South, joint with IEMIT, discussion leader Doga Ozturk. ULF waves play important roles in M-I-T coupling, driving current systems that can lead to I-T system heating and geomagnetically induced currents. This session aims to bring together researchers from the ULF wave and M-I-T coupling research communities to discuss challenges associated with realistically modeling M-I-T coupling processes associated with these waves. The session will begin with a discussion of the ULF wave challenge event; comparisons between modeled / observed (PFISR) conductivities and modeled/observed ULF wave properties will be presented, and the community will be invited to discuss explanations for model/observation differences. The rest of the session is open for short presentations on ULF wave modeling challenges related to M-I-T coupling, including topics such as specifying conductivity and effect of conductivity on wave properties, effect of ionospheric boundary conditions in global simulations, boundary conditions and feedback between magnetosphere and ionosphere, capturing role of waves in ionospheric-thermospheric heating.

  1. (Invited) Boyi Wang: Ionospheric modulation by Pc5 ULF waves and wave structure detected by PFISR
  2. (Invited) Xiaojia Zhang / Anton Artemyev: ULF modulation of VLF waves and precipitation
  3. Doga Ozturk: Update from GEM/CEDAR joint session, ULF Wave activity and Meso-Scale electric field variability at high-latitude I-T system
  4. Anatoly Streltsov: ULF waves generated by the MI interactions near the plasmapause
  5. Mergen Alimaganbetov: ULF waves observed in space and on the ground at high and low latitudes
  6. Mark Engebretson: Multi-Instrument Observations of Nighttime Impulsive Magnetic Events
  7. Bob Lysak: Modeling ionospheric conductance and ground magnetic fields
  8. Yan Song: ULF wave, M-I coupling and Auroral formation.

EMIC waves: 10:30-12:00, Thursday, June 27 New Mexico room, joint with Radiation Belt. The generation mechanisms of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves, their effects on energetic electrons and ions, and their propagation through the magnetosphere-ionosphere system are challenging topics that involve multiple GEM research areas. Despite several years of observations and improved global wave statistics, there are many unresolved questions that limit further investigation, modeling and prediction of dynamical processes in the inner magnetosphere involving EMIC waves. Hence, we invite short presentations that discuss recent findings in different areas of EMIC wave research and identify observations/models most needed to address unresolved questions.

  • Robert Allen, Outer magnetospheric EMIC wave source regions characterized by Cluster
  • Sarah Vines, EMIC waves in the outer magnetosphere: Observations of an off-equator source region
  • Justin Lee, EMIC wave observations by MMS
  • Chao Yue, The relationship between EMIC wave properties and proton distributions based on Van Allen Probes observations
  • Kristine Sigsbee, Simultaneous EMIC Wave Observations During a Van Allen Probes Conjunction
  • Hyomin Kim, Observations of Particle Loss due to Injection-Associated EMIC Waves
  • Yuri Shprits, Dips in PSD and how they are related to EMIC wave scattering
  • Richard Denton, Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the dipole magnetosphere and pitch angle scattering of sub-MeV relativistic electrons by those waves
  • Qianli Ma, Pitch angle scattering of radiation belt electrons due to statistical EMIC wave spectra

Recent advances in ULF wave research: Observations and HGSO coordination for ULF wave studies: 1:30-3:00, Thursday, June 27 New Mexico room. Discussion of recent advances in ULF wave research, with focus on observations and a general discussion of Heliophysics/Geospace System Observatory coordination for ULF wave studies. We particularly encourage presentations describing (1) past or upcoming satellite conjunctions, (2) new data analysis tools, and/or (3) instrumentation/operation modes of interest to the ULF wave research community.

ULF waves driven by wave-particle interactions and instabilities: 3:30-5:00, Thursday, June 27 Lumpkins Ballroon South, discussion leaders: Xueling Shi and Hyomin Kim. Many ULF wave modes are closely related to instabilities and wave-particle interactions inside the magnetosphere: poloidal mode waves associated with particle injections, mirror/drift-mirror modes, buoyancy waves… These waves are often discussed in different contexts and in different GEM sessions. In addition, there have been relatively few studies of modeling internally generated ULF waves. The purpose of this session is to bring together modelers and observers to discuss the underlying processes that drive/damp these waves, their impact(s) on the M-I system (ring current, radiation belt, ionosphere,…), and the models/observations needed to better understand wave dynamics.

2019 Mini-GEM schedule

UMEA will hold one session at the 2019 mini-GEM workshop

Time: 15:30-17:00, Sunday, December 8, 2019, Nevada Room

ULF wave modeling challenge event, HGSO coordination, and research highlights The first part of the session is for updates on the ULF wave modeling challenge and potential 2020 GEM sessions. The next part of the session is open for ULF wave research presentations discussing the ULF wave modeling challenge event or current/upcoming observation campaigns that are particularly useful for ULF wave studies. The last part of the session will be open for 1 slide ULF wave research highlights.

2020 VGEM schedule

UMEA will hold two sessions at the 2020 Virtual GEM workshop

Time: 13:00-14:30 US Eastern Time, Wednesday, July 22, 2020

ULF wave modeling challenge event (Hosted by Xueling Shi) The first part of the session is for updates on research related to the challenge event (27-29 May 2017 storm): All modeling and observation talks welcome as long as they're related to this event. The last part of the session will be for short research highlights and oral summaries of posters.

Time: 15:00-16:30 US Eastern Time, Wednesday, July 22, 2020

ULF wave research highlights These will be contributed talks with priority given to graduate students and postdocs. The rationale is that virtual GEM will not provide the same type of networking opportunities as in-person GEM, and we'd like to balance this somewhat by giving more opportunities to students/postdocs to present their work on ULF waves.

All presentations are 10 minutes including discussion: